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Generic weapon's data and sniper system's data

Glossary of terms

Glock 17
Glock 19

Glock 21
SIG Sauer P226
SIG Sauer P229
SIG Sauer P229S
SIG Sauer P232
Beretta 92

Mac 10
vz. 61Skorpion

Remington 700
Grizzly 50 Big Boar

Steyr AUG

M1 Super 90

Stinger RMP, Man Portable, Shoulder Fired, Infrared Guided, Anti-Aircraft Missile
General Purpose Machine Gun or Medium Machine Gun
Grenade launcher/with M16
Light anti-armor weapon

Used by
Designates weapons that are used by a particular operator. For pistols it becomes more of a preference but just because someone isn't seen using a weapon doesn't mean he or she hasn't been trained in it.
The company that typically designed and built the system. By the way, 'Koch' in Heckler & Koch is pronounced 'Coke.' Don't piss off the Germans.
Country of Origin
The country where this weapon was first produced. Often times many popular weapons are manufactured in a number of countries but it all had to start some place.
First Production Year
First year this design appeared on the market. Doesn't necessarily mean this is the exact version still being sold. Most good systems go through a number of product improvements.

Type of bullet it fires. This will be designated in millimeters or calibers, which ever is most popularly used to identify that round. In millimeters your typical round is identified by two millimeter measurements. The first is the diameter of the bullet and the second is the length of the case. Example: '9mm x 19mm' means 9mm in diameter with a 19mm case length. This helps to differentiate from same diameter bullets with different lengths. For example the 9mm short (or .380 auto) is really 9mm x 17mm. Some bullets are known by a either a millimeter measurement or a caliber measurement. 9mm parabellum (9mm x 19) and .45 ACP are good examples. Calibers equal 1/100th of an inch. Thus a .50 cal. is 1/2 an inch and the .45 cal is 45/100th of an inch. Here are some typical caliber measurements and their millimeter equivalents:

 .50 cal.


 .45 cal


 .40 cal.


 .357 cal.*


 .308 cal.


 .223 cal.


*(.38 cal is actually .357 cal.)
Magazine Capacity
Is the number of rounds that will fit into the magazines that go into the weapon. Sometimes there is more than one number because there are different size magazines with larger or smaller capacities. This doesn't include the one round that can already be in the chamber.
Type Feed
Staggered means bullets that are staggered within the magazine (double stacked). Inline means a single row of rounds in a magazine. Belt means linked metal or cloth belts holding the rounds in a row.
Locking System
Most weapons have a system for locking the round in the chamber when it is fired. This makes for better accuracy. Many of the older type submachine guns and a few pistols do not have a locking system.
Barrel Length
The length of the barrel in inches and millimeters. This typically translates into the longer the barrel the more accurate the system. It's also useful for comparing other similar type systems.
System Operation
How the weapon mechanically removes the fired cartridge from the chamber and installs a new unfired round.
Max. Effective Range
Maximum range a typical shooter can be expected to get casualty producing round on target. This is often subjective. Maximum effective range is actually as far as that particular shooter can get a round on target. So Max. Effective range can differ from shooter to shooter. Even different books talking about the same weapon will give different ranges. Whatever. Don't waste time arguing about this.
Max. Range
The maximum range this weapon can put casualty inflicting rounds on a target. Often this is much longer than effective range especially for crew served machine guns. Doesn't mean you are putting rounds on a specific target but rather an area target.
Muzzle Velocity
How fast the bullet is going when it exits the barrel. This is measured in feet per second (fps) or meters per second (mps). It's a good indication of damage potential when you take into account the diameter of the bullet. A 5.56mm (.223 cal.) M16 round traveling 3300 fps will do much more damage than a .45 caliber bullet (11.43mm) traveling 835 fps. Of course velocity immediately starts dropping off as soon as the bullet leaves the barrel.
Cyclic Rate of Fire
The speed at which this weapon will deliver rounds when set on full-automatic. This is measured in rounds per minute (rpm). This assumes a never ending supply of ammunition which is rarely true. By dividing this number by 60 you can calculate rounds per second. If you're really that interested. Cyclic rate of fire is determined by three things - size and weight of the bolt (lighter means faster), length of travel (shorter means faster) and size and strength of spring (stronger means faster). By adjusting these three things a manufacturer can somewhat control the rate of fire of a system.
Applied Safety
This is the manual safety that the operator switches on and off. For most modern selective fire weapons it also selects between semi-auto and burst and/or full-auto. It also reflects exactly what that safety does to render the weapon safe. Usually this is by blocking the trigger, hammer, sear, firing pin or a combination of these. This description does not include automatic safeties that come off during the normal operation of the weapon, such as the trigger safety in the Glock pistols or the grip safety in the M1911A1 Government model or the Israeli UZI. Some weapons' applied safety is much easier to manipulate than others. The M16 series and the M1911 series are so easy that operators can move with them at the ready with the safeties on with no loss of speed when they have to engage a target. Other's are so difficult to switch on or off (AK series for example) that operators move at the ready with the safety off and their trigger finger out of the trigger. Actually, all professional operators, whether the safety is on or off, keep their fingers off the trigger until they are engaging a target.
Minimum Range
Most explosive warhead systems have a minimum range. It is after this minimum range that the warhead is armed. If it hits anything before it reaches this range it will not detonate. This is done to protect the firer from blowing himself up accidentally.
Backblast Danger Area
All rocket systems fire out a blast of superheated gases to the rear when the weapon is launched. You don't want to be standing back there when it goes off.
Self Destruct
Many explosive warhead systems have a self destruct built in. It's usually set to go off just after the weapon reaches it's maximum range. This is a safety consideration to keep people from finding a live warhead that missed its target.

This is a representation of the accuracy potential of this system. This is measured in moa or minute of angle. This is basically the size of the group of the rounds fired down range at a specific target. Moa is a measurement of angle off the line of sight. A minute of angle is approximately 1 inch at 100 yards (actually 1.047 in.) or 2 inches at 200 yards, 4 inches at 400 yards. You get the picture. Thus a 1/2 moa rifle is capable of producing groups of one half an inch at 100 yards or 2.5 inches at 500 yards. Thus the lower the minute of angle, the more accurate the rifle.
Standard/Optional Scope
This is the scope that comes with the weapon or at least is offered with the weapon. For many systems there is no scope that comes with it. That is a separate purchase entirely. Since the scope is basically the other half of the sniper system this gives the individual shooter the choice of scope. Besides scopes and rifles are typically made by two different companies.
The overall weight of this system. This becomes critical if you are planning a stalk through natural terrain to the target. The heavier the system the more difficult it is to drag to your sniper hide.

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